Making Wuḍūʾ by Submersion in Water
Ml Yusuf Karaan
1 December 2023
Seeing that summer is coming around and people will be swimming in pools and beaches, can a person make Wuḍūʾ simply by making niyyah and jumping into a pool, considering that Tarteeb is a fardh of Wuḍūʾ in the Shāfiʿī madhhab?
السلام عايكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
As you have mentioned, the sequence of actions is a requisite of Wuḍūʾ in the Shāfiʿī school. However, submersion in a body of water is an exclusion to this rule by consensus, meaning that Wuḍūʾ would be valid, provided your intention. There is dispute as to whether submersion alone is sufficient or if Dalk (the application of water to the skin using one’s hands) is further stipulated, as is the view of Imām Mālik. Be that as it may, our discipline suffices with submersion.
The second matter—the water. It is well known that pool water is regularly mixed with chlorine to prevent the growth of bacteria and algae. This addition of chlorine is considered by our discipline as an alteration to the water. Furthermore, this alteration was not of the kind that water is usually—and unavoidably—accompanied by, such as ponds often containing muddy water and algae, or ground water having iron or magnesium content. Rather, this alteration is completely man-made, and for that reason pool water will not be counted as having the potential to remove physical (Najas) and metaphysical (Ḥadath) impurities (Ṭahūr).
All hope is not lost, however. This is because the chlorine content within pool water is constantly being degraded by sunlight, meaning that within a few days, the water has naturally reverted to its original state, regaining its purifying potential.
وﷲ تعالى أعلم
And Allah knows best
DUAI Fatwa Department