The Arabic words siyâm and sawm literally mean ‘abstention’ and as such any avoidance even of speech may be called sawm. An example of this comes in sûrah Maryam, verse 26: “I have taken an oath to perform sawm… and as such I will not speak to any human today.” Legally however it means: “for a specific person [the mukallaf who intends it] to abstain from specific matters [the three nullifiers] for a specific period [from true dawn until sundown].”
Protagonists of Sunnī-Shīʿī unity claim that the differences between Shīʿah and Sunnī are no different than the differences between the four Sunnī schools of jurisprudence and thus should be treated with the same tolerance and acceptance as Ḥanafī-Shāfi‘ī differences. In this article, the fundamental differences between Shīʿah and Sunnī are examined, and the obtuseness of such claims made apparent.
Ijma‘ is one of the four main sources of Islamic law. It is a fortress and protective fence against adulteration in all spheres and phases. It is an unalterable axle of Islamic Canonical Law. Although it is generally believed to be so, this doctrine of Ijma‘ has suffered, in so called modern researches, from fanatic objections.
Correspondence between Ml Taha Karaan and a student.
The charge leveled against Imâm Taqiyy ad-Dîn as-Subkî is that despite possessing all the requirements for ijtihâd, he did not perform ijtihâd, and preferred to remain within the bounds of his madhhab, since the adoption of independent ijtihâd would preclude him from rising to positions which were reserved for fuqahâ of the madhâhib.